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Installing as a Dynamic Module with NGINX from Debian/CentOS Repositories

You can install NGINX from the Debian/CentOS repositories.

To install NGINX from the repositories, you must:

  1. Add the Debian/CentOS repositories.

  2. Install NGINX with the Wallarm module.

  3. Configure postanalytics.

  4. Connect the Wallarm module.

  5. Set up the filter node for using a proxy server.

  6. Connect the filter node to the Wallarm cloud.

  7. Configure the server addresses of postanalytics.

  8. Configure the filtration mode.

  9. Configure logging

  10. Restart NGINX.

Prerequisites

  • Prior to taking any steps listed below, either disable or configure SELinux if it is installed on the operating system.
  • Make sure that you execute all commands below as superuser (e.g. root).

1. Add the Repositories

Depending on your operating system, run one of the commands:

apt-get install dirmngr
apt-key adv --keyserver keys.gnupg.net --recv-keys 72B865FD
echo 'Acquire::Check-Valid-Until "false";' > /etc/apt/apt.conf.d/ignore-release-date
echo 'deb http://archive.debian.org/debian jessie-backports main' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/jessie-backports.list
echo 'deb http://repo.wallarm.com/debian/wallarm-node jessie/2.14/' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/wallarm.list
echo 'deb http://repo.wallarm.com/debian/wallarm-node jessie-backports/2.14/' >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/wallarm.list
apt-get update
apt-get install dirmngr
apt-key adv --keyserver keys.gnupg.net --recv-keys 72B865FD
sh -c "echo 'deb http://repo.wallarm.com/debian/wallarm-node stretch/2.14/' >/etc/apt/sources.list.d/wallarm.list"
apt-get update
apt-get install dirmngr
apt-key adv --keyserver keys.gnupg.net --recv-keys 72B865FD
sh -c "echo 'deb http://repo.wallarm.com/debian/wallarm-node stretch/2.14/' >/etc/apt/sources.list.d/wallarm.list"
sh -c "echo 'deb http://repo.wallarm.com/debian/wallarm-node stretch-backports/2.14/' >> /etc/apt/sources.list.d/wallarm.list"

# [warning][IMPORTANT]uncomment the following line in /etc/apt/sources.list:
#deb http://deb.debian.org/debian stretch-backports main contrib non-free

apt-get update
apt-get install dirmngr
apt-key adv --keyserver keys.gnupg.net --recv-keys 72B865FD
sh -c "echo 'deb http://repo.wallarm.com/debian/wallarm-node buster/2.14/' > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/wallarm.list"
apt-get update
yum install --enablerepo=extras -y epel-release centos-release-SCL
rpm -i https://repo.wallarm.com/centos/wallarm-node/6/2.14/x86_64/Packages/wallarm-node-repo-1-5.el6.noarch.rpm
yum install -y epel-release
rpm -i https://repo.wallarm.com/centos/wallarm-node/7/2.14/x86_64/Packages/wallarm-node-repo-1-5.el7.noarch.rpm

Repository access

Your system must have access to https://repo.wallarm.com to download the packages.

Ensure the access is not blocked by a firewall.

Issue with CentOS GPG keys

If you have already added Wallarm repository and got an error related to invalid CentOS GPG keys, please follow the steps:

  1. Remove added repository using the yum remove wallarm-node-repo command.
  2. Add the repository using the command from appropriate tab above.

Possible error messages:

  • http://repo.wallarm.com/centos/wallarm-node/7/2.14/x86_64/repodata/repomd.xml: [Errno -1] repomd.xml signature could not be verified for wallarm-node_2.14
  • One of the configured repositories failed (Wallarm Node for CentOS 7 - 2.14), and yum doesn't have enough cached data to continue.

2. Install NGINX with the Wallarm Module

Important information for Debian 8 “Jessie” users

Note that using the NGINX installed from the jessie repository will result in non-functioning Wallarm module for NGINX.

You need to add the jessie-backports backports repository and install NGINX from this repository.

If you follow the instructions from the previous step to add the repositories to your system, then the backports repository is already set up. You can execute the command for Debian 8.x (see below) to get all necessary components installed.

Install the Requests Processing and Postanalytics on the Same Server

To run postanalytics and process the requests on the same server, you need to
install the following packages:

  • Wallarm module

  • In-memory storage Tarantool

  • Postanalytics

Run the following command to install the required packages:

apt-get install --no-install-recommends nginx wallarm-node libnginx-mod-http-wallarm -t jessie-backports
apt-get install --no-install-recommends nginx wallarm-node libnginx-mod-http-wallarm
apt-get install --no-install-recommends nginx wallarm-node libnginx-mod-http-wallarm -t stretch-backports
apt-get install --no-install-recommends nginx wallarm-node libnginx-mod-http-wallarm
yum install nginx wallarm-node nginx-mod-http-wallarm
yum install nginx wallarm-node nginx-mod-http-wallarm

Install Only the Requests Processing on the Server

To only process the requests on the server, you need to install the following
package:

  • Wallarm module

Run the following command to install the required package:

apt-get install --no-install-recommends nginx wallarm-node-nginx libnginx-mod-http-wallarm -t jessie-backports
apt-get install --no-install-recommends nginx wallarm-node-nginx libnginx-mod-http-wallarm
apt-get install --no-install-recommends nginx wallarm-node-nginx libnginx-mod-http-wallarm -t stretch-backports
apt-get install --no-install-recommends nginx wallarm-node-nginx libnginx-mod-http-wallarm
yum install nginx wallarm-node-nginx nginx-mod-http-wallarm
yum install nginx wallarm-node-nginx nginx-mod-http-wallarm

3. Configure Postanalytics

Postanalytics uses the in-memory storage Tarantool. You must set the amount of server RAM allocated to Tarantool.

The amount of memory determines the quality of work of the statistical algorithms.

The recommended value is 75% of the total server memory. For example, if the server has 32 GB of memory, the recommended allocation size is 24 GB.

Allocate the operating memory size for Tarantool:

Open for editing the configuration file of Tarantool:

vi /etc/default/wallarm-tarantool
vi /etc/default/wallarm-tarantool
vi /etc/default/wallarm-tarantool
vi /etc/sysconfig/wallarm-tarantool
vi /etc/sysconfig/wallarm-tarantool

Set the allocated memory size in the configuration file of Tarantool via the
SLAB_ALLOC_ARENA directive.

For example:

SLAB_ALLOC_ARENA=24

Restart Tarantool:

systemctl restart wallarm-tarantool
systemctl restart wallarm-tarantool
systemctl restart wallarm-tarantool
service wallarm-tarantool restart
systemctl restart wallarm-tarantool

4. Connect the Wallarm Module

Copy the configuration files for the system setup:

cp /usr/share/doc/libnginx-mod-http-wallarm/examples/*conf /etc/nginx/conf.d/
cp /usr/share/doc/nginx-mod-http-wallarm/examples/*conf /etc/nginx/conf.d/

5. Set up the Filter Node for Using a Proxy Server

Info

This setup step is intended for users who use their own proxy server for the operation of the protected web applications.

If you do not use a proxy server, skip this step of the setup.

You need to assign new values to the environment variables, which define the proxy server used, to configure Wallarm node for using your proxy server.

Add new values of the environment variables to the /etc/environment file:

  • Add https_proxy to define a proxy for the https protocol.

  • Add http_proxy to define a proxy for the http protocol.

  • Add no_proxy to define the list of the resources proxy should not be used for.

Assign the <scheme>://<proxy_user>:<proxy_pass>@<host>:<port> string values to the https_proxy and http_proxy variables.

  • <scheme> defines the protocol used. It should match the protocol that the current environment variable sets up proxy for.

  • <proxy_user> defines the username for proxy authorization.

  • <proxy_pass> defines the password for proxy authorization.

  • <host> defines a host of the proxy server.

  • <port> defines a port of the proxy server.

Assign a "<res_1>, <res_2>, <res_3>, <res_4>, ..." array value, where <res_1>, <res_2>, <res_3>, and <res_4> are the IP addresses and/or domains, to the no_proxy variable to define a list of the resources which proxy should not be used for. This array should consist of IP addresses and/or domains.

Resources that need to be addressed without a proxy

Add the following IP addresses and domain to the list of the resources that have to be addressed without a proxy for the system to operate correctly: 127.0.0.1, 127.0.0.8, 127.0.0.9, and localhost.
The 127.0.0.8 and 127.0.0.9 IP addresses are used for the operation of the Wallarm filter node.

The example of the correct /etc/environment file contents below demonstrates the following configuration:

  • HTTPS and HTTP requests are proxied to the 1.2.3.4 host with the 1234 port, using the admin username and the 01234 password for authorization on the proxy server.

  • Proxying is disabled for the requests sent to 127.0.0.1, 127.0.0.8, 127.0.0.9, and localhost.

https_proxy=http://admin:01234@1.2.3.4:1234
http_proxy=http://admin:01234@1.2.3.4:1234
no_proxy="127.0.0.1, 127.0.0.8, 127.0.0.9, localhost"

6. Connect the Filter Node to the Wallarm Cloud

API Access

The API choice for your filter node depends on the Cloud you are using. Please, select the API accordingly:

Ensure the access is not blocked by a firewall.

The filter node interacts with the Wallarm cloud.

To connect the node to the cloud using your cloud account requisites, proceed with the following steps:

  1. Make sure that your Wallarm account has the Administrator role enabled and two-factor authentication disabled, therefore allowing you to connect a filter node to the cloud.

    You can check the aforementioned parameters by navigating to the user account list in the Wallarm console.

    !User list in Wallarm console

  2. Run the addnode script in a system with the filter node:

    Info

    You have to pick the script to run depending on the Cloud you are using.

    /usr/share/wallarm-common/addnode
    
    /usr/share/wallarm-common/addnode -H us1.api.wallarm.com
    

    To specify the name of the created node, use the -n <node name> option.

  3. Provide your Wallarm account’s login and password when prompted.

7. Configure the Server Addresses of Postanalytics

Info

  • Skip this step if you installed postanalytics and the filter node on the same server.
  • Do this step if you installed postanalytics and the filter node on separate servers.

Add the server address of postanalytics to /etc/nginx/conf.d/wallarm.conf:

     upstream wallarm_tarantool {
         server <ip1>:3313 max_fails=0 fail_timeout=0 max_conns=1;
         server <ip2>:3313 max_fails=0 fail_timeout=0 max_conns=1;

         keepalive 2;
    }

    ...

    wallarm_tarantool_upstream wallarm_tarantool;

Required conditions

It is required that the following conditions are satisfied for the max_conns and the keepalive parameters:

  • The value of the keepalive parameter must not be lower than the number of the tarantool servers.
  • The value of the max_conns parameter must be specified for each of the upstream Tarantool servers to prevent the creation of excessive connections.

8. Configure the Filtration Mode

The etc/nginx/conf.d directory contains NGINX and Wallarm filter node configuration files.

By default, this directory contains the following configuration files:

  • The default.conf file defines the configuration of NGINX.

  • The wallarm.conf file defines the global configuration of Wallarm filter node.

  • The wallarm-status.conf file defines the Wallarm monitoring configuration.

You can create your own configuration files to define the operation of NGINX and Wallarm. It is recommended to create a separate configuration file with the server block for each group of the domains that should be processed in the same way.

To see detailed information about working with NGINX configuration files, proceed to the official NGINX documentation.

Wallarm directives define the operation logic of the Wallarm filter node. To see the list of Wallarm directives available, proceed to the Wallarm configuration options page.

A Configuration File Example

Let us suppose that you need to configure the server to work in the following conditions:

  • Only HTTP traffic is processed. There are no HTTPS requests processed.

  • The following domains receive the requests: example.com and www.example.com.

  • All requests must be passed to the server 10.80.0.5.

  • All incoming requests are considered less than 1MB in size (default setting).

  • The processing of a request takes no more than 60 seconds (default setting).

  • Wallarm must operate in the monitor mode.

  • Clients access the filter node directly, without an intermediate HTTP load balancer.

Creating a configuration file

You can create a custom NGINX configuration file (e.g. example.com.conf) or modify the default NGINX configuration file (default.conf).

When creating a custom configuration file, make sure that NGINX listens to the incoming connections on the free port.

To meet the listed conditions, the contents of the configuration file must be the following:

    server {
      listen 80;
      listen [::]:80 ipv6only=on;

      # the domains for which traffic is processed
      server_name example.com; 
      server_name www.example.com;

      # turn on the monitoring mode of traffic processing
      wallarm_mode monitoring; 
      # wallarm_instance 1;

      location / {
        # setting the address for request forwarding
        proxy_pass http://10.80.0.5; 
        proxy_set_header Host $host;
        proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
      }
    }

9. Configure Logging

Configure the filter node variables logging using NGINX. This will allow to perform a quick filter node diagnostics with the help of the NGINX log file.

10. Restart NGINX

Providing user with root permission

If you are running NGINX as a user that does not have root permission, add this user to the wallarm group using the following command:

usermod -aG wallarm <user_name>;

where <user_name> is the name of the user without root permission.

systemctl restart nginx
systemctl restart nginx
systemctl restart nginx
service nginx restart
systemctl restart nginx

The Installation Is Complete

Check that the filter node runs and filters the traffic. See Check the filter node operation.

Default Settings

A freshly installed filter node operates in blocking mode (see the wallarm_mode directive description) by default.

This may result in the inoperable Wallarm scanner. If you plan to use the scanner, then you need to perform additional actions to render scanner operational.

Additional Settings

The filter node may require some additional configuration after installation.

The document below lists a few of the typical setups that you can apply if needed.

To get more information about other available settings, proceed to the “Configuration” section of the Administrator’s Guide.

Configuring the Display of the Client's Real IP

If the filter node is deployed behind a proxy server or load balancer without any additional configuration, the request source address may not be equal to the actual IP address of the client. Instead, it may be equal to one of the IP addresses of the proxy server or the load balancer.

In this case, if you want the filter node to receive the client's IP address as a request source address, you need to perform an additional configuration of the proxy server or the load balancer.

Adding Wallarm Scanner Addresses to the Whitelist

The Wallarm scanner checks the resources of your company for vulnerabilities. Scanning is conducted using IP addresses from one of the following lists (depending on the type of Wallarm Cloud you are using):

If you are using the Wallarm scanner, you need to configure the whitelists on your network scope security software (such as firewalls, intrusion detection systems, etc.) to contain Wallarm scanner IP addresses.

For example, a Wallarm filter node with default settings is placed in the blocking mode, thus rendering the Wallarm scanner unable to scan the resources behind the filter node.

To make the scanner operational again, whitelist the scanner's IP addresses on this filter node.

Limiting the Single Request Processing Time

Use the wallarm_process_time_limit Wallarm directive to specify the limit of the duration for processing a single request by the filter node.

If processing the request consumes more time than specified in the directive, then the information on the error is entered into the log file and the request is marked as an overlimit_res attack.

Limiting the Server Reply Waiting Time

Use the proxy_read_timeout NGINX directive to specify the timeout for reading the proxy server reply.

If the server sends nothing during this time, the connection is closed.

Limiting the Maximum Request Size

Use the client_max_body_size NGINX directive to specify the limit for the maximum size of the body of the client's request.

If this limit is exceeded, NGINX replies to the client with the 413 (Payload Too Large) code, also known as the Request Entity Too Large message.